A file is just a collection of data. Everything that is observed through a computer is the result of different types of files being displayed or played. Files are the data that programs or applications use to carry out a function. There are files that dictate everything from how a program works to what color to display in the case of a digital photo. Files come in many different varieties based on their function, but before we start getting into file extensions, let’s take a look at what exactly is in a file.
In the case of computer files, data are a collection of binary digits (hence the term “bit”). Bits are entries of 0s and 1s that are grouped together in flocks of 8. Those groups of 8 bits are known as bytes, and each byte can represent the binary values between 0 (00000000) and 255 (11111111), giving a byte the ability to express 256 values. In the case of characters saved in text documents, each letter is saved as a byte that corresponds to a character in the ASCII character set.
Bytes do not always equal letters, but that example is a way to understand how the strings of 0 and 1 in a file correspond to usable information. Collections of bytes are strung together to produce data that can be read in different ways by different applications. The data that represents a picture of a flower will produce an unintelligible mess if a program like a word processor tries to read it.
A file extension is the suffix that tells what kind of information computer files contain. By this point, it is intuitive for most computer users that a .jpg extension is not something you are going to sit down and read, or that a .mp3 file is not going to be a feast for the eyes. The computer knows this, too, and uses a predetermined program to deal with the interpretation of a file based on its extension. Applications are made to take in data from a file and process it in a certain way. If you want to think about computer files like their real-world counterparts, you can imagine that the file extension is a note on the folder that tells what language the contents are in. When the instructions inside the folder are read and understood by a person, they can work with other people to build something together even though they do not share the same language.
How Big are Files?
Okay, so you know that a bit is a 1 or a 0, and that bits are strung together in groups of eight called bytes. You also know that bytes are used to carry a value that will be understood by a program to mean a certain part of instruction. So, let’s look at an example. Take a hypothetical .jpg image that is a screenshot from a game. It is just a picture that has a size of 397 KB. So, that is 397,000 bytes. 397,000 bytes * 8 gives us 3,176,000 bits, meaning that the program used to open the file read 3.176 million 0/1 entries to produce the image.
Simply put, video files are computer files that store digital video data on a computer or other digital device. These files are almost always compressed in order to reduce the size of the file.
Video files are more complex than simpler files like image files or audio files because they have to contain not only the moving image itself, but also audio data to be synced with the video and a metafile that contains information about how all the elements of data and metadata work together.
A video computer file will usually consist of a container format that specifies how the elements will sync together, subtitles, and other metadata. Inside the container will be both a video coding format and an audio coding format. The coded video and audio inside the container are referred to as the essence of the file, and sometimes the user will be required to install the codecs necessary to decode the essence in order to play or encode a video.
There may be some confusion for users if they are trying to use the file extension to find the correct codecs to play some video files. AVI (.avi) and Quicktime (.mov) are very broad container types that have the ability to carry audio and video files in a range of formats, but the extensions are named after the container instead of the contents. Other formats that took a more intuitive approach for helping users know which programs will access the files are: WebM (.webm), Ogg Video (.ogv), and Windows Media Video (.wmv).
The specifics codecs and essence components will determine the quality of the video computer file. As with audio and image files, the rule of thumb to remember is that more compression is equivalent to more data loss, and that can translate in the end to reduced quality.
What is Stored in a Video?
Videos will be a series of image frames displayed in a certain amount of images per second: that’s the framerate (fps). Framerate and resolution of the images has the largest bearing on the size of videos. A 640 x 480 video that runs for 10 seconds at 30 fps will mean that 300 images will be shown. That’s 300 images composed of 307,200 pixels that each need a color assignment. With a color depth of 24 bits, that is 7,372,800 bits per frame (7.37 Mb). At 30 fps, that means that the video data is displaying 221.1Mb of data per second. So, this hypothetical 10 second video clip running at 221.1 Mb/s for 10 seconds will produce a computer file over 276 MB.
It’s pretty easy to see how quickly these numbers grow. Storing larger resolution videos of any length would become quite cumbersome if there were no compression. Don’t forget that if there is audio to accompany the video, it will also be integrated into the total size of the file. Choose a compression rate that will render video at an acceptable quality that will also fit in the desired size of the computer file.
For some people, backing up their computer files can feel like an absolute chore. If you consider yourself to be one of these people, you’ve probably been putting off this task for ages. Chances are, you’ve been putting it off for far too long.
While it’s understandable to feel like you just don’t have the time to save your computer files, we cannot begin to stress how important it is to have this taken care of. Failure to do so can result in some serious headaches.
Why You Need Back Up Your Computer Files
At this point in time, it should go without saying that not only should you back up your computer files, but you should do so on a regular basis.
The value of backing up your files is so intensely crucial. Regardless of what you use the computer for, it stands to reason that you almost certainly have a ton of valuable files on it. From the programs and apps you use every single day, to important financial information and records, to your browser history, to the various word document and other types of files that make up your hard drive, it’s safe to assume that your computer is storing a lot of significant information.
And if you fail to protect your computer files by backing them up, there are a number of bad things that can happen as a result. Your files can become corrupted, or can become obliterated completely, if something unfortunate should happen to your computer. It is also highly possible for someone to get into your computer, and simply take the pieces of private information they want. There are a number of ways in which thieves can accomplish this.
You can protect your files and your essential information in a variety of ways. But even as technology changes, and even as you have more comprehensive methods for protecting your data, backing up your computer files remains a method that is never going to go out of style.
Methods For Backing Up Your Computer Files
If you’re only planning to back up certain files for your computer, relax. You don’t have to be a computer expert to do this, nor is it absolutely essential to back up the entire device. Simply determine which files you want to save, and then consider one of these two methods:
Cloud-Based File-Synching: Cloud-based file saving has become a significantly popular method of saving computer files over the past few years. A service like Dropbox will indeed require an internet connection, but it is just one of the cloud-based methods that guarantees you will be able to protect your most important pieces of information.
Discs and/or USB drivers: You can use these options individually, but many prefer to take a two-pronged approach to protecting their data by having it backed up. An external hard drive or other USB-based device can allow you to store tons and tons of information. External hard drives are more affordable than ever. At the same time, some ordinary blank DVDs or CDs can provide additional protection.
If you want to earn money from your uploaded files, pay per download websites are just what you should consider. You can convert to money any type of virtual content including files, audio, video, apps, software, and just about anything that an online user can download. This is a good way to earn money online from your original content.
What is a Pay Per Download Website?
Even though various online firms may use the name, a pay-per-download system allows you to earn money from your downloads. You can charge a fee for every download, or require the users to unlock the files by performing something such as completing a quiz or answering a survey. This system generates profits from third-party advertisers. The two services may overlap, and some online revenue generation systems provide both systems to their members.
Some pay-per-download websites also offer affiliate programs. An online marketer will promote the paid download. Every time that a visitor buys your download, you need to pay them a commission. If you are also familiar with online marketing, you can leverage on an affiliate system of a PPD website to market other people’s downloads so you can make money from commissions.
Maximize Your Passive Income through Pay Per Download System
If you have the capacity to develop original content, then either the content-locking system or the paid purchase can work for you. In order to find out which one is suitable for your situation, you need to evaluate your content.
The first thing you need to do is to understand the competition. Identify the strategies used by competitors to monetize products in the same line. Are they using content-locking strategies or are they asking fees for the end product? It will not hurt you to follow the steps of those who have gone before you and succeeded. But don’t forget to innovate.
Locked Content vs Paid Downloads
Basically, less valuable content must be locked, while valuable content should be made available for a fee. If you have a web space and enough resources, try running both systems and check which earns more profit.
More often than not, the fees for locked downloads are much lower compared to the fees that you would charge for paid items. However, the cost of production of this digital content is a bit lower compared to a paid product. Rather than selling one large file for a premium price, you can try distributing several smaller files and receive smaller but more payments for each download.
Pay Per Install vs Pay Per Download
A pay per install system is not that much different from a pay per download website. However, PPI is especially designed to help software developers to promote, distribute, and make money from the software. A pay per install system mainly works by marketing the software through a smart installer. Developers, marketers, and web masters can leverage a PPI system by either paying to market their own products or by earning a commission, which is similar to a PPD system.
Obviously, the PPI system is only designed for software developers. This online profit network provides an alternative to charging for the product, which is often a difficult option in the current setting of the online world.
Pay per download websites are among the best tools to help you make money online and are certainly worth trying by anyone who has the capacity to develop original digital content. The system you choose will often rely on the nature and genre of the content that you are offering, your profit goals, and price range. After choosing one strategy, it is time to test the system so you can soon earn a steady stream of passive income.
If you’re interested in beefing up Internet security and privacy, you should know that it can be done. While we are all exposed while we’re online, the smartest, savviest Internet users do employ specific strategies which help to minimize the dangers of poor Internet security, such as identity theft, cyberbullying, viruses and malware.
In order to help you master the process of improving Internet security and privacy, we’ve created a practical quick guide…
Lock Down Social Media Profiles
Privacy and security are intertwined. If you’re interested in enjoying more Internet security immediately, the best strategy will be to lock down your social media profiles or to delete them entirely. This will protect you from cyberbullies and other online threats.
As you are probably already aware, those who post on social media tend to reveal a lot of information about their jobs, relationships, hobbies and whereabouts. Identity thieves or others with poor intentions may use this information in order to attack.
Deletion of social media accounts is an extreme option, but it’s probably the best way to ensure that you are safer online. If you do wish to maintain your social media accounts, it’s best to set all posts, photos and related information to “friends”, which means that all data, except your profile and cover pictures, will not be seen by anyone that you don’t know and approve as a Facebook friend.
Also, beware of friend requests from strangers – it’s best to ignore these requests entirely, as these strangers may be looking for ways to extract personal information from your social media accounts. Likewise, any email messages from strangers should not be responded to. If these email messages seem “spammy”, consider reporting them to Facebook.
Create Super-strong Passwords
If you haven’t changed your passwords in a while, you should know that changing them frequently is really the key to ensuring that they are harder for hackers to access. However, when you do change your passwords, you should make certain that they are very strong.
This means using lower and upper case letters and adding numbers. While it’s tempting to keep the same passwords over the long term, since they are so easy to remember, changing it up and adding numbers and upper case letters is the best way to stay safe. Never tell anyone your passwords, and definitely avoid using the same password over all of your online accounts, even if it’s very strong. Otherwise, if you do get hacked, your password becomes a master key to your entire online life!
Invest in the Right Protective Software
Malware and viruses are another threat which is prevalent online. To protect yourself, invest in the right software. One popular program is Norton Anti-virus, which is designed to stop eminent threats before they invade your Internet privacy and security. Another free option is Malwarebytes, which has the power to remove any existing malware problems from your personal computer or mobile electronic device. There are plenty of other programs around. Just be sure to download these programs from official websites.
While these software applications may not solve everything, they do have the power to take care of many viruses and malware threats. Without these programs, you may find that surfing the World Wide Web is fraught with peril. After all, a lot of websites will reward your clicks by sending harmful viruses and/or malware to your computer.
Signs of problems with viruses and malware include a computer that works slower than it used to, problems opening programs and all-out “freezes”. While slow computer performance is sometimes the product of old components or due to having too many programs installed (this eats up precious memory), more often than not, if your computer is running very slow, it’s been infected with a virus or malware.
Strengthen Internet Security Today
Now that you know the secret of beefing up Internet security and privacy, you’ll be ready to create a stronger defense against online threats. By using our trio of tips today, you’ll be primed to surf the Web in a safer, more protected manner.
Lastly, think about how you comment online – do you post comments anonymously, or use social media profiles in order to speak your mind? It may be wiser to post anonymously, as your comments may reveal information about you that you don’t want others to know.
The Internet is a fun place, but it can be dangerous too. This is why you should always think twice before giving personal and/or financial details to any website. Check out an online retailer or other online resource carefully before deciding whether or not to do business or register at the website. Taking the time to vet websites by looking for online feedback about them will work wonders – it will help you to avoid the bad apples in the bunch.
Now, you have the right toolkit for enhanced Internet security and privacy. So, why not use our tips today?
Computers function as a place for data to be stored and processed. The processing is handled by the CPU working with files in the memory of a machine, but don’t confuse a computer’s memory with its storage capacity. A device’s memory is a volatile storage area that the CPU uses to carry out tasks that are read from non-volatile storage: when the machine is powered-down, the CPU ceases to function, and items stored in the volatile memory are lost. Non-volatile storage is the place where computer files are held without the device being powered, and is what is typically referred to when the term “storage” is used.
The Hard Drive
For the majority of people, this is where data for their computer is stored. The hard disk drive is a spinning collection of disks that employ a magnetic medium on the disk surface for the storage of data. Every file that is saved or accessed through a computer (unless the data is accessed by a peripheral storage device) is stored on the hard drive. Where the CPU and memory carry out functions, the hard drive is the depot of data that the memory and CPU draw from in order to function.
Most people will remember having at some point inserted a silvery disc into a reader of some sort. Compact Discs were the medium of choice for music and software distribution prior to the days of always-on internet. These discs work by reading deformities on the surface of a metallic layer via laser. Though they were most popular as a music storage medium, remember that musical data is still data, and any manner of data could be stored on these discs. Optical discs are not as common as they were during the 90s and early 2000s, but they remain a viable option for the non-volatile storage of computer files.
Portable Solid State Storage
In most portable devices, a spinning magnetic disk would not be a viable option for the storage of computer files. As a result, most portable devices use solid state memory that does not rely on retrieving data from a magnetic disk, but relies on the state of floating-gate transistors incorporated in memory cells. These non-volatile storage devices are incorporated into most handheld electronics to serve in the place of a hard disk drive. Aside from the integrated storage spaces of hand held electronics, solid state storage provides the medium for most direct interface data exchanges (information not downloaded directly through the internet). Portable solid state storage is most popularly found in one of two forms.
USB flash drives are small, highly portable devices that include flash memory combined with a USB interface. These small devices are easy to handle, and can offer up to more than 500 GB of rewritable non-volatile storage.
SD cards are small solid state non-volatile devices that most commonly store computer files for hand held electronic devices. Through the utilization of SD cards, devices such as cellular phones or PDAs can store up to 2TB of data that is easily transferred between the device and a computer.
For most, file sharing is no longer confined to insecure email attachments and USBs. Now, individuals and companies alike use cloud storage services for their file sharing needs. However, there are plenty of cloud storage services with file sharing capabilities today. How do you know which one is the right fit for your own personal use or for your business?
Find out which cloud storage is best for you and your file sharing needs today. This article features OneDrive, Dropbox, and Google Drive, but if you are trying to find a great file sharing solution for your business, make sure to keep Box in your considerations as well.
Keep in mind that this article does not cover all of each cloud storage service’s features, but only the major differences between each service. If you want to find out more about a particular service, try looking on the main website for the service.
OneDrive, formerly known as SkyDrive, is a storage option provided by Microsoft. If you already have Windows 8 or 8.1, you already have OneDrive built into your operating system. Anyone else can simply use it on the website or with a application for desktops or mobile devices.
One of the great advantages of OneDrive is that it works really well with different Microsoft Office applications including Word and Excel. For those that have an Office 365 subscription, you will be able to open documents saved within OneDrive directly from your desktop and collaborate with others to work on recent documents. Real-time changes can be seen. Because it is a Microsoft product, OneDrive works wonderfully with Windows devices.
If you have all Windows devices as well as deeply rely on Office applications, OneDrive is a good choice for you. However, if you are wishing to use OneDrive for Business, kep in mind that other cloud storage services offer more features to businesses than OneDrive does currently.
Users receive 15GB of free storage and can earn more. Paid plans can be bought for $2 per month for 100GB or $4 per month for 200GB. OneDrive for Business is priced at $5 per user per month for 1TB of storage along with additional features.
Dropbox is commonly loved because it is easy to set up, reliable, and simple to use. Access your files from the Dropbox’s Website, desktop applications, or mobile apps.
Users flock to Dropbox because of its simple and clean design. However the website design is basic and does not have too many options for users to choose from when using their files. Dropbox also gives you plenty of chances to get extra free storage, mostly through successful referrals.
The best part about Dropbox is that it works equally well across different platforms, including PCs, Macs, Androids, and iOS devices. It is simple enough for anyone to understand without training.
Dropbox for Business also works seamlessly with other business aps, including Word, Excel, Photoshop, Acrobat, and more. In addition, it features unlimited deletion recovery. With full visibility and transparency features, Dropbox allows administrators to clearly supervise data transfers with its complete audit log. Remote wipes are also available as well access control.
Users begin with 2GB of free storage, while the paid plan of $10 per month allows 1TB of storage. Dropbox for Business costs $15 per user per month for unlimited storage.
Google Drive already has several online office tools incorporated, so you will have a word processor, spreadsheet application, and presentation builder already at your disposal. It is also already linked to any Google account that you already have as well as Google+.
Access everything from the Drive website, with the desktop app, or mobile apps. If you have a Chromebook, you will find that Drive is already built in.
Google Drive excels because it does not really require any setup. In addition, if you already have a Google account and use Gmail, you can easily save attachments from your email to your drive.
Google Drive for Business also provides great admin controls, file audit reports, and eDiscovery services. The business will have access to unlimited storage space as well.
Google Drive provides users with 15GB of free space to start out with and $2 per month for 100GB of storage. If you want addition space, you can pay for Google Drive for Business with $10 per user per month for 1TB of space if you have less than 5 users, and unlimited space if you have enough people.
Certain forms of software are known for their power to block viruses and/or malware. These are the types of software applications that security-conscious Internet users should invest in.
By choosing the right application from a reputable software development company, you’ll find that you access premium protection from digital threats. Without the protection that such a program provides, you may leave yourself open to viruses and malware every single time that you visit a website online.
While there are reputable and safe websites, there are also plenty which serve as conduits for viruses and/or malware. Unfortunately, it’s all too easy to click on one of the bad ones as you go about your business online.
In particular, websites with adult subject matter may be infected. If you enjoy looking at adult content online, you’ve likely been hit with viruses and malware issues already – most people have! This can be frustrating, as these viruses and malware programs tend to slow down computer performance significantly – in addition, they may leave computer owners prone to identity theft and other Internet-based threats.
Of course, adult websites aren’t the only problems. The World Wide Web is an information highway which is loaded with viruses, malware, phishing scams and more.
Therefore, we do recommend accessing protection by investing in a software application which will keep your computer safer. Bear in mind that no program is one hundred percent effective. However, many of them, such as Norton Anti-virus, are world-renowned for their impressive features.
How to Choose Virus Protection Software
The first thing that you should know is that some websites which offer virus protection software are not safe! While it sounds crazy, some of these websites are actually hotbeds for the viruses and malware that visitors are trying to avoid or to get rid of!
Therefore, you should make a point of downloading software of this type only from official websites of virus protection/anti-malware software.
For example, if you want Norton Anti-virus or Malwarebytes, be sure to get them from the official websites, rather than third-party websites. This is definitely the smartest way to access authentic programs which aren’t infected! Both of these programs are excellent picks, as they work very well for millions of users all over the world. In addition, they are very safe programs which don’t typically negatively affect computer performance.
Utilize Free Trials and Demos
Best of all, you may access free trials of these programs in order to test them out before you buy. This is great, as they are long free trials which are designed to protect your computer and to allow you to explore all of the features of each program. However, you’ll only be able to access such free trials once. At some point, you’ll be asked to buy the software (which is available on a subscription basis) in order to maintain your current level of protection.
If you’re very budget-conscious, simply continue doing free trials of different programs in order to keep your computer protected. While this is more of a hassle than just subscribing and paying a reasonable fee for premium protection, it will be better than doing nothing. Eventually, you will run out of reputable free trial offers, but you can use them until there’s nothing left to test out.
When you do invest in software, you’ll access regular software updates which are designed to combat the latest Internet security threats, such as new viruses and malware. Teams at these software program companies stay up to date by learning how to combat all of the latest threats. You’re advised to download updates as soon as they are available, as they add even more protection to anti-virus and anti-malware programs.
Other Internet Security Tips
Installing and running the right anti-virus software program on your computer will work wonders and it’s probably the smartest way to stay safe online. However, there are other ways to improve Internet security, including the deletion of social media profiles or the tightening up of privacy levels at social media platforms. In addition, checking out websites before you hand over personal and financial information will help a lot.
You deserve to enjoy your time online, without fearing viruses, malware and identity theft. In order to get the most out of the Internet, without the downside, you should choose a good anti-virus software application. When you do, you’ll be able to browse online with a lot more confidence.
Hopefully, our guide has helped you to get familiar with two software applications which are reputable and very effective. By installing both of them, you’ll boost protection levels against computer viruses and malware. Free trials will help you to get the ball rolling without costing you a single penny.
Now is the right time to get going with this form of software, so what are you waiting for? Find the perfect software application and enhance Internet security today!
In searching for an ideal network for online monetization, marketers are often faced with two choices – pay per download networks and pay per install networks. Even though both networks can give you a steady stream of passive income, there are still differences that you need to know. Let’s begin by defining each network.
What is a Pay Per Download (PPD) Network?
A PPD network mainly allows you to lock an uploaded file. In order to unlock the content, users should complete an action such as completing a survey or answering an online quiz. Third-party sites supply these actions and will be the one paying you for every action completed. Even though users are not paying to access the content, the PPD networks are still known as pay per download website, because you earn money for every download.
Another type of a PPD network is a system that mainly serves as a marketplace that allows you to upload and then charge a fee for every download. Hence, you are technically earning for every downloaded file, and the website will get a commission.
What is a Pay Per Install (PPI) Network?
A PPI network is not actually very different from a PPD network. However, this type of network is designed to help software developers and marketers to promote, distribute, and earn profit from certain software. Basically, a PPI system operates by marketing uploaded files through a PPI smart installer. You can take advantage of the PPI system by paying to market your own products or by making profits from placing ads in the network.
It is important to take note that the PPI network is a main marketing channel for software developers. This online revenue solution provides an alternative for charging fees for the end product, which can be very difficult to market.
Pay Per Install Vs Pay Per Download? Which Network to Choose?
If you are a software developer, you can earn from both types of network, and some features are overlapping. The main difference is on the compensation model and both network offer different benefits.
Choosing the network that is most suitable for you depends on your business goals and the offer from the network. However, it will help you a lot to know primary differences between the two networks.
The target audience for each network is different. For instance, the common market for a PPI network are developers, which is a very segmented market. The market for each network will be different and for a pay per download network, it will depend significantly on the marketers who are using that network to earn money from their uploaded files.
Pay per install networks allow software developers to change the installation channel and adjust the appearance of the installer, which serves as the main platform for ad placements and promotions from third-party firms. On the other hand, a pay per download network is similar to a combination between ad networks and affiliate programs. The payment model is not based on commission, but marketers can usually choose promos to run.
Both PPI and PPD provide analytics for monitoring and improving campaigns. Some networks provide tools to allow you to monitor the number of downloads, marketing conversion rates, the number of cancelled downloads, and real time information. Both networks also provide metrics for you to study data to better optimize your conversion rates and understand your market.
It is quite difficult to identify which among the two can provide you greater online revenue. The amount of your potential compensation will depend on the size of your market, how much you are earning on average for every download, and the type of products you are promoting.